Multi-talented individuals, fountain designers from the 16th to the late 18th century frequently functioned as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one person. Exemplifying the Renaissance skilled artist as a inspiring master, Leonardo da Vinci worked as an inventor and scientific guru. He methodically noted his experiences in his currently famed notebooks, following his immense fascination in the forces of nature led him to examine the attributes and mobility of water. Ingenious water exhibits full of symbolic significance and all-natural charm changed private villa settings when early Italian fountain designers paired creativity with hydraulic and gardening expertise. The humanist Pirro Ligorio supplied the vision behind the wonders in Tivoli and was recognized for his virtuosity in archeology, architecture and garden concepts. Other water feature engineers, masterminding the phenomenal water marbles, water attributes and water humor for the many estates in the vicinity of Florence, were well-versed in humanistic themes and traditional scientific texts.