Up until the Archaic Greeks developed the very first freestanding sculpture, a remarkable achievement, carvings had mostly been done in walls and pillars as reliefs. Most of the freestanding statues were of youthful, winsome male or female (kore) Greeks and are called kouros figures. The kouroi were considered by the Greeks to represent beauty and were sculpted with one foot leading and an uncompromising rigidity to their forward-facing poses; the male statues were always strapping, brawny, and unclothed. In about 650 BC, the varieties of the kouroi became life-sized. The Archaic period was tumultuous for the Greeks as they progressed into more refined forms of government and art, and gained more data about the peoples and societies outside of Greece. Throughout this time and other durations of historic tumultuousness, clashes often happened, most notably wars fought between city-states such as the Arcadian wars and the Spartan infiltration of Samos.